名词性从句作“介词的宾语”

从中学开始就坚持语法无用论,以为拿下阅读理解就拿下了全世界。
然而路越往后走才发现,语法这东西真的很重要,有时候不懂语法句子根本就读不通顺。
所以最近开始下定决心从头开始,一边在扇贝打卡背单词,一边学习语法知识。勤能补拙是良训啊,就给这个伟大的计划起个响亮的名字吧:进击的伪小学生!
声明:以下所有知识点均总结于赖世雄老师的《赖氏经典英语语法》,例句基本也摘自此书。

  • 名词性从句
  • 名词性从句的种类
  • 名词性从句作“介词的宾语”

名词性从句

名词性从句即具有名词性质的从句,它包括宾语从句、主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句。
即:名词性从句可在句中做主语,宾语(动宾/介宾),同位语,be动词的表语。

名词性从句的种类

一共有三种

  • that从句
  • whether从句
  • 疑问词引导的从句

1)that从句
组成:that + 一个完整的句子(任何一个主语起首的句子前面冠以that,即成that从句)
2)whether从句
组成:whether + 一般疑问句的变形
一般疑问句分别对应以下三种情况:
a)问句有be动词:主语与be动词还原
b)问句有一般助动词(can、will、may等):主语与助动词还原
c)问句有do、does、did等助动词:主语与助动词还原,再讲do、does、did去掉,后面动词依人称和时态变化

eg.
Does he like it?
变化:whether he likes it

3)疑问词从句
组成:疑问词(when、what、how等) + 一般疑问句的变形
其三种情况与上述完全相同

特别说明:who、what、which为疑问代词,在问句中作主语时,变成名词性从句时,结构不变

eg.
Who came here(问句)
who came here(名词性从句)

名词性从句作“介词的宾语”

whether从句疑问词引导的名词性从句可直接作介词的宾语
that从句不可作

以下围绕非要用that从句的补救方法
1)介词 + the fact + that从句
that从句在此作the fact的同位语
2)不加the fact,介词后的that从句作变化
Step 1:去掉that
Step 2:that后的主语变成所有格
Step 3:动词变成动名词

eg.
I am worried about that he plays around all day.
变化:I am worried about his playing around all day.

在此基础上,有三种特殊情况:
a)that从句有助动词do、does、did时,予以去掉

eg.
I am worried about that he doesn't study.
变化:I am worried about his not studying.

b)that从句有助动词will或would时,予以去掉
c)从句中有以下助动词,变形

may → be likely to
can → be able to

3)be + adj + that从句
也就是去掉介词,直接把从句放形容词后面

特别说明:有时介词之后可直接接that从句,而不需要the fact,形成惯用语

in that = because 因为

eg.
He is talented in that he can speak five different languages.

except that 只可惜;除了……

notwithstanding that
= despite the fact that
= in spite of the fact that 尽管

eg.
Notwithstanding that he is nice,I don't like him.
= Despite the fact that he is nice,I don't like him.
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